1. the clinical manifestations of inpidual difference, cause, depends on the stone composition, size, number, location, activity, obstruction and infection of renal parenchyma pathological damage. It can be completely asymptomatic, serious may have no urine, renal failure, toxic shock and death.

2. stones incarcerated in the ureteropelvic junction or ureter in decline, can appear renal colic, paroxysmal sudden onset of pain like the knife cut, severe unbearable pain, patient restlessness, pain from the waist or abdomen side downward radiation to the bladder area, the vulva and the inner thighs, sometimes with sweat, nausea and vomiting.

3. the stones of the mucosa is seriously damaged, so often a gross hematuria. Pain and hematuria in patients often induced activities of more complicated infection. Stones, pus cells, urine have frequent micturition, dysuria symptoms.

4. when secondary to acute pyelonephritis or kidney abscess, may have fever, chills, chills and other symptoms. Bilateral upper urinary tract calculi or renal calculi obstruction, can cause anuria.

Some dissolved substances in the urine of normal people, resulting in precipitation for various reasons, retention in the kidney, and sustained growth, will be the formation of stones. Kidney stones occurred in adults, more men than women. Kidney stones may exist for a long time without any symptoms, especially larger stones. Smaller stones range, when small stones into the ureteropelvic junction or ureter, causing severe ureteral peristalsis, to promote lithecbole, and angina and hematuria. Kidney stones caused by pain dull pain and cramps can be pided into.40% - 50% of the patients had clearance pain history. The pain is often located in the waist and abdomen, most of paroxysmal. Also some persistent pain. The pain may only show the waist soreness, or labor can promote pain onset or exacerbation. Kidney stones showed severe angina knifelike pain, often sudden onset of pain, often to abdominal radiation , the medial inguinal or femoral, female radiation to the labia. Renal colic, patients showed acute tolerance, curled up in bed, his hands pressed abdomen and waist, and even roll in bed groaning incessantly. Often several hours of attack, also a few minutes to relieve renal colic. Serious, face pale, body cold sweat, pulse fine and even speed, lower blood pressure, a state of collapse, accompanied by nausea, vomiting, abdominal distension and constipation. Angina pectoris, urine volume decreased, after remission, can have polyuria.

Hematuria is another main symptoms of kidney stones. Pain, often accompanied with hematuria or microscopic hematuria, the latter, a large number of gross hematuria is rare, hematuria after physical activity can worsen. Urine in patients with kidney stones can be discharged sand, especially in pain and hematuria occurs, the urine mixed with sand or small stones. Stones through the urethra, blocking or tingling. The common complications of kidney stone is obstruction and infection, many cases due to medical symptoms of urinary tract infection. The obstruction can cause kidney seeper, appear on the back or abdominal mass.