The main cause of reflux nephropathy is reflux. Ureteral reflux is the reflux of urine through an imperfect joint of the bladder and ureter. Under physiological condition, the valve mechanism of the last paragraph of the ureteral anatomy of the functional integrity of performance and preventing the reflux. The valve mechanism including: Ureteral obliquely through the bladder wall; ureteral wall special muscle tissue; Ureter mucosa flap. The valve mechanism of anatomic and functional integrity change, will lead to primary or secondary vesicoureteral reflux.
1 primary ureteral reflux
The most common clinical manifestations of primary ureteral reflux. More common in children. For congenital ureteral segment bladder submucosal abnormalities, such as congenital bladder submucosal ureter bladder tissue too short, deltoid muscle dysplasia. With the growth of children, the development of the bladder base, the majority of reflux will disappear.
2 secondary ureteral reflux
Secondary vesicoureteral reflux may be secondary to a variety of reasons caused by bladder neck or urethral obstruction (bladder pressure), neurogenic bladder (urinary bladder gravis), tuberculosis of bladder and bladder after surgery (caused by ureteral injury).
3 Classification of ureteral reflux
At present, it is widely accepted that it is still the standard for the level of reflux in the international children's research group:
(1) I only had ureteral involvement.
(2) II involving the ureter and renal pelvis, calyces without expansion, normal renal calices fornix.
(3) class III ureteral dilatation and mild to moderate (or bending), mild moderate pyelectasis, no or only slight blunt fornix.
(4) class IV ureteral dilatation and moderate (or bending), moderate expansion of renal pelvis, but most acute renal calices fornix disappeared in the nipple shape there.
(5) V-grade ureter, renal pelvis dilatation and severe bending, disappear most calyceal nipple shape