The reasons that acute nephritis occur edema
Acute nephritis mainly because the glomerular filtration reduce yet the reabsorb function of kidney tubules still maintain normal ，normal renal tubule to water can absorb up to 99% and there are different degree of absorption for sodium 、potassium、urea、uric acid and so on ,so it will cause water retention .In addition, the blood capillary permeability of the whole body increase ,plasma protein infiltrate tissue space is the another reason of acute nephritis .
The nursing management of patients with acute nephritis
1.Have a good rest .In the acute stage ,patients with serious blood urine 、edema and high blood pressure should lie in bed for about 4-6 weeks ,when it gets better can take some activities ,such as after taking some activities the blood urine and protein can’t aggravate or continue to get well ,the patients can take outdoor activities through 1-2weeks even can do some easily work .Taking regular examination ,if the urine changes or aggravates ,the patients should lie in bed again .
2.Eliminating infection lesions : Some acute nephritis in a family of group B after hemolytic streptococcus infection so for the prodromic infection such as isthmitis 、amygdalitis、pustular sore、deputy sinusitis 、otitis media and so on should be active treatment .Commonly use penicillin treat for 14days .At same time pay attention to keep warm ,do a good job in oral cavity 、skin care ,eliminate the infection lesions which maintain in the body .
The treatment of acute nephritis
When patients occur edema 、high blood pressure should adopt to low-salt、salt-free and low-sodium diet .The intake of salt not more than 2-3g a day ( the intake of soy within 10-15ml).The food with rich sodium salt (such as pickles 、salty eggs 、bacon、seafood )should avoid eating .For patients with serious edema 、high blood pressure should give salt-free diet .Not to eat high sodium food such as ferment powder、alkali making steamed bread and dessert . Patients occur oliguria or high serum potassium should limit rich sodium vegetables and fruits .such as banana and oranges .
Patients must lie in bed ,the heat energy cannot so high (25-30kilocalorie/kilo a day) .The source of heat energy need 1600-2000 kilocalorie , mainly depend on carbohydrate and fat ,which possess 90% of the total energy ,but the fat content can not so more ,it is better to use the grease of unsaturated fatty acid (vegetable oil is better ).All kinds of vitamin should enough supply.