The blood water and its solutes are filtered into the renal capsule through the glomerulus to form urine, which must pass through the endothelial cell, basement membrane and epithelial cell of the capillary wall. These three structures are called glomerular filtration membrane.
The three layer filtration membrane has a certain pore, can only allow a certain molecular weight and the diameter of the material through the filtration membrane, thus constituting the aperture barrier, and the surface structure of three layers were coated with sialic acid protein, glomerular basement membrane inner and outer loose layer with heparan sulfate, these substances with negative charge in the human body environment in the rejection of a negative charge through which financial intelligence, charge barrier filtration membrane.
In addition, the glomerular mesangial membrane between the glomerular capillaries has a regulatory effect on the glomerular filtration barrier, and therefore plays a certain role in the filtration of the glomerulus.
Under normal circumstances, the vast majority of blood. Proteins can not pass through the glomerular filtration barrier, especially large molecules and albumin with negative albumin, which can hardly pass through. Small amounts of proteins that are filtered through membranes can be reabsorbed in the renal tubules.
Therefore, although every day about 10 ~ 15kg plasma protein through the renal circulation. But the protein excreted from urine is less than 150mg. In nephrotic syndrome, due to a variety of pathological factors, the barrier function of filtration membrane is damaged, such as pore size or negative charge is reduced, resulting in a large number of protein leakage, heavy absorption capacity and far more than the renal tubules, the emergence of massive proteinuria.
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