Nephrotic syndrome can be divided into primary nephrotic syndrome, congenital nephrotic syndrome and secondary nephrotic syndrome according to pathology. The four characteristics of nephrotic syndrome clinical manifestations: a lot of proteinuria, edema, hypoproteinemia, hyperlipemia.
1、A lot of proteinuria
The main components of proteinuria is protein, it can contains other plasma protein. The protein of patients is more than 3.5g every day, they can have lipid urine. Glomerular filtration rate reduce, proteinuria decrease, patients have severe hypoproteinemia, the displacement of urine protein can increase, high protein diet can make the displacement of urine protein increase.
The symptoms that patients pay more attention to are gradually to aggravate the whole edema, the initial morning eye, edema of face and ankle, with the development of illness, the edema can relate to the whole body, patients can appear pleural effusion, ascites, pericardial effusion, mediastinal effusion even they can have pulmonary edema.
Hypoproteinemia is the serum albumin of patients is less than 30g, liver albumin compensatory effect can not offset the loss of urine protein, it can appear hypoproteinemia.
Hyperlipemia is not related to hypoproteinemia, patients can have lipid urine, urine can have the double refraction of body fat, it is for epithelial cells containing cholesterol or fat body shape.