Nephropathy is called a group of diseases that differ in their causes and course of and arising out of violations of metabolic processes in the body. Types renal nephropathy depend on the particular manifestation of lesions avitaminosis, hypoxia, etc. contribute to the development of diseases.kidney damage
When damage occurs nephropathy and kidney structures of the kidneys deteriorates. Nephropathy may be primary or secondary hereditary, that is acquired.
As a result of progressive nephropathy may appear a risk that there will be a form of chronic kidney failure. Which is in the early stages of its development are asymptomatic, which is particularly dangerous for human health.
Causes and varieties nephropathy
Due to the fact that nephropathy is not a disease, but rather becomes the outcome of other disease processes, there are many reasons for its development - continuously taking the medication, intoxication with heavy metals, the effect on the body by radiation, metabolic disorders, neoplastic processes, the impact of toxins on body structure anomalies kidney and urinary channels.
The exchange or dysmetabolic nephropathy is a kidney failure, which occurs due to metabolic disorders. This pathology is common in pediatric practice as metabolic disorders urine observed every third child.
In the normal state the urine excreted displayed a certain amount of salt. At the same time the urine does not lose its transparency and no foreign particles are present in it. When conducting a microscopic examination of urine in it are found salt crystals. Depending on the concentration of such salts physician will decide on the availability of such pathology, as the exchange renal nephropathy.The risk of forming kidney stones
If the exchange nephropathy remains constant in the child, as well as the doctor establishes the fact that the relatives suffered from kidney stones, it is required to carry out certain preventive and therapeutic measures. Excess release of salts in the urine is considered a risk factor for the formation of kidney stones.
Calcium oxalate nephropathy - often found in children, and its development can be correlated with impaired metabolic processes of calcium oxalate. Oxalates enter the body with food and synthesized by the body.
The reasons for the formation of oxalates are:
High concentration of oxalate in the consumption of food.
intestinal pathology - ulcerative colitis, bowel anastomoses, etc.
High yield of oxalate in the body.
Oxalate nephropathy - multifactorial pathology. According to various sources hereditary factor in the development of nephropathy oxalate up to 75%. But in addition to genetic predisposition, much depends on the influence of the body nutrition, stress, environment, etc.
The first symptoms are formed independently of the age of the person, and can be detected even in newborns. The most common disease diagnosed in five - seven years in the urine detection assays of oxalate crystals, a certain amount of protein, erythrocytes and leukocytes. Also, an increase in the removal of urine density.
Oxalate nephropathy, as a rule, does not affect the overall development of children, but they can be marked vegetative-vascular dystonia, obesity, tendency to lower blood pressure and headaches. The period of acute illness is necessary at the time of puberty, ie aged 10 to 14 years due to hormonal disruptions in the body of a teenager.
The progression of this disease can cause the formation of kidney stones, the development of the inflammatory process in the event of additional bacterial infection.
Phosphate nephropathy - often occurs in pathologies that are accompanied by an exchange of calcium and phosphorus in the body. A main cause of the formation is considered a chronic urinary tract infection.
Phosphate nephropathy is often accompanied by calcium oxalate, but in this situation is less pronounced.
Urate nephropathy - represents a violation of uric acid metabolism. Per day in the human body produces to 1000 mg of uric acid by one-third of this volume is secreted into the intestines, where bacteria destroyed. The remaining part is filtered in the kidney and sucked back, and only about 12% of the total output in the urine.
Primary urate nephropathy explained inherited disorder of metabolism of uric acid.
Secondary urate nephropathy develops as a complication of other pathologies, it is a consequence of taking certain medications or malfunction of the renal tubules or due to a violation of physico-chemical properties of the urine. Deposition of urate crystals in renal tissue inflammation provokes the formation and worsening of renal function. The first disease symptoms as early as infancy, but most doctors say the hidden flow of disease.
When the General urinalysis therein revealed the presence of a small amount of red blood cells and protein. At high concentrations of urate urine becomes brick color.Violation of uric acid metabolism
Violation of cysteine metabolism. Cystine is considered to be the products of metabolism amino acid called methionine. There are two main reasons for the increase of cystine concentration in urine - is an excess in kidney cells or impaired reabsorption process of cystine in the kidney tubules.
Cystine accumulates in the cells due to genetic defects. Most intracellular accumulation of cystine detected not only kidneys, but also in spleen, liver, bone marrow, lymph nodes, peripheral blood cells, in muscle and in nerve tissue and other organs.
Violation of cystine reabsorption in the renal tubules is detected due to hereditary defects transport processes amino acids such as arginine, cystine, ornithine and lysine through cell walls.
If metabolic nephropathy begins to progress regardless of its species. The symptoms of kidney stones are detected, and in case of infection of joining - an inflammatory process in the kidneys.
Treatment and diagnosis of nephropathy
The process of diagnosing is based on a study of the clinical picture of the disease, laboratory data, ultrasound. If necessary realized more sophisticated and accurate methods of instrumental diagnostics.
Treatment is carried out in a hospital and is in the implementation of measures that involve the removal of the causative agent, the implementation of symptomatic therapy, ie the restoration of blood pressure, eliminate swelling, normalization of urine output and blood homeostasis.