In transplant recipients after the success, often ignore the guard, postoperative management, such as not to listen to the guidance of a doctor and take inappropriate diet habits, the results often affect the transplantation effect, so not easily won "second life" operation flower briefly as the broad-leaved epiphyllum. In fact, success is only to the first recipients. The new students, the recipients threat not only from rejection, drug toxicity, infections and other medical factors, not to accept health guidance and self neglect of health management also has a great influence on long-term survival.
Health management refers to inpiduals or groups of health risk factors for overall management of the process, including monitoring, assessment and intervention in three aspects. The reasonable health management can help healthy people to maintain health, reduce the incidence of the disease and the corresponding medical expenditure for transplant recipients, health management has a more important significance. Because the recipients are affected by various factors in the life more easily than ordinary people. Through the systematic treatment and self health monitoring, timely detection of problems, and take effective ways to solve the problem as soon as possible, will contribute to the synergistic effect between transplantation and maintenance of transplanted organs, improve the quality of life and prolong the survival. Therefore, transplantation don't neglect the recipients after operation of "health management".
In short, self health management of transplant recipients can follow the following four principles:
1, adhere to the light, the principle of reasonable collocation diet
Recipients should follow the diet of the "three low and one high amount" principle, namely, low salt, low sugar, low fat, high in vitamins and the amount of high quality protein, cholesterol and calcium.
The low salt early postoperative rehabilitation period and required a low salt diet, daily intake of salt is about 3-4 grams of soy sauce or 15-20 ml is appropriate, such as hypertension, edema, oliguria, etc., can increase the amount of salt, but every day not more than 6-8 grams. Diarrhea, polyuria or summer sweating, may be appropriate to add salt, prevent hyponatremia.
We should not eat too much sugar and low sugar products, easy to induce diabetes. After transplantation, Steamed Rice 250 grams per day, to enter the maintenance period can be gradually increased to 500 grams per day. But attention Shaoshiduocan, to avoid a sharp rise in blood sugar. Sugar rich fruit should not be excessive eating, usually with no more than 250 g / day.
The low fat should be light, avoid greasy. Edible oil should be given priority to with vegetable oil, animal fat should not eat.
The high vitamin fresh vegetables and fruit should eat vitamin rich vegetables. Every day should eat 400-500 grams of fruit a day should eat 100-200 grams. Red, yellow, green, dark vegetables and fruits contain more nutrition. Especially rich in iron, zinc, selenium, silicon vegetables and fruits should be noticed, such as spinach, Brasenia schreberi, bracken, mulberry, apricot and so on.
The amount of high quality protein immunosuppressive agents can accelerate the decomposition of protein synthesis and inhibition, so that protein consumption increases, so the transplantation should be appropriate to increase the supply of high quality protein, should eat 125-200 grams per day. High quality protein is mainly animal protein, such as fish, poultry, eggs, lean meat and other animal food; but not too eat more vegetable protein, such as soybean, peanut and so on, it will produce a large number of amine metabolism, increasing the burden of kidney.
The amount of cholesterol in cholesterol diet should be less than 300 milligrams per day, equivalent to an egg yolk content.
The amount of calcium calcium intake to 800 mg per day is appropriate, prevention and treatment of osteoarthritis. The source of calcium in dairy products is the best, and the amount of calcium absorption rate is high. The amount of calcium rich other foods include: canned fish, fish, shrimp, concentrated bone soup and green vegetables. Tune in cooking fish, ribs and other foods, may be appropriate to put some vinegar, favors the dissolution of calcium.
Reminder  some recipients after operation to tonic to enhance physical fitness, but supplements there may interfere with the role of anti rejection drugs, thereby inducing rejection. For example, white fungus, black fungus, letinous edodes, red dates, honey, royal jelly and ginseng, recipients should be used with caution.
2, to follow the doctor's advice, treatment principles of rational drug use
Transplant recipients must lifelong use of immunosuppressive agents, the immune system can live together in peace together with new organs. But some recipients are due to postoperative slack, think good recovery and of immunosuppressive drug adverse reactions to various reasons such as not timely referral or unauthorized change by drugs, drugs, drug withdrawal, the results often lead to occurrence rejection, causing organ failure. These due to noncompliance, irrational drug use and influence the effect of transplantation cases It is often seen. because of this reason, which lead to graft failure is very regrettable. Because the recipients are special medication dosage, not cause rejection, excessive medication will cause damage to human body organs and the function of transplant recipients medication must follow the doctor's advice. Any problem in the process of treatment, recipients can timely communicate with doctors, seek the best solution for example, For those who have long-term use of anti rejection drugs and liver and kidney toxicity, high blood lipids, high blood pressure and high blood sugar and other adverse reactions of transplant recipients can choose anti rejection drugs less side effect under the guidance of a doctor, such as mycophenolate mofetil Cellcept, but can not arbitrarily stop by drugs, medicine dressing. Because doctors dispensing according to all kinds of signs, comprehensive consideration in the maintenance of human immune suppression at the same time, strengthen the absorption or reduce the side effects of drugs by drug interactions, self dressing or adjust the dose not only can not play this kind of effect, may also lead to poisoning.
3, adhere to the principle of moderate exercise, exercise step by step
Recipients should not exercise, properly carry out exercise helps transplantation after rehabilitation, not only can make the recipients better brace up, re integration of work and life. But the recipients exercise need to grasp the principle of gradual and moderate, excessive movement may cause harm to the body. Daily exercise time should be controlled within 1 hours, especially over 50 transplant recipients. And, sooner or later each exercise for half an hour, concentrated exercise effect or better than 1 hours.
Recipients can develop a suitable progressive exercise program under the guidance of a doctor. In order to avoid the movement damage and accident, the whole movement of transplant recipients should include: warm-up, movement and recovery and relaxation phases:
It can be through the proper warm-up warm-up stretching: such as elastic exercise, yoga and gymnastics, stretch before exercise, stretching the muscles and ligaments of the slow rotation of each joint, and helps to prevent movement of muscles, joints and ligaments injury. Insist for a long time stretching and elastic motion, can increase the muscles and ligaments the blood supply, increase the range and flexibility.
The movement for transplant recipients to carry out the sports including continuous aerobic exercise and moderate strength exercise.
Continuous aerobic exercise such as walking, jogging, skipping, aerobics, swimming, biking, boating, skiing, skating, climbing and so on. These movements need plenty of muscle groups to participate at the same time, can increase the heart and lung function, promote blood circulation, improve the utilization rate of oxygen. Persist long time (less than 30 more than 1 minutes, hours) low intensity aerobic exercise can help the body of excess consumption of energy, reduce blood fat, blood sugar, especially for obese recipients, help control weight.
Moderate strength training: such as dumbbell, arm strength and strength training auxiliary equipment. Repeated muscle contraction, helps to increase muscle strength and bone density and prevent osteoporosis.
The recovery and relaxation such as unique Qigong and meditation in regulating body, pranayama self-aligning way to relax, can relax muscles, relieve muscle tension, increase muscle and visceral blood circulation, regulating the function of autonomic nervous system, relax, release the pressure, relieve tension, anxiety, mental symptoms in low ebb, to exercise recovery and the effect of relaxation.
4, adhere to the principle of positive health belief on
The mental health problems of transplant recipients can not be ignored. Many recipients because of fear of others strange vision and long-term anti rejection treatment and economic burden in various problems such as anxiety and depression, effects of postoperative rehabilitation. Therefore, recipients can after looking for some to make yourself happy, keep a open-minded, optimistic, positive, play or develop their own interests, maintain a positive curiosity and thirst for knowledge, to release the body and mind; embrace life with heart, with a mature understanding of life, know how to Thanksgiving, treat the people around; friends and chat about health, don't close yourself in the body; and the economic circumstances allow, and friends and family to go hiking, flying family.
At the same time, relatives and friends in the transplantation need to be given more care of transplant recipients, help them establish a positive and optimistic attitude towards life, back into life.