The kidney is the important organ that eliminate metabolite of the body and maintain the balance of water, electrolyte and acid-base and produce a variety of endocrine hormone. The kidney eliminate most of metabolites of the body and foreign materials of entering the body and retain the important electrolyte such as sodium, potassium and hydrogen carbonate to maintain the relative stable of body environment. The food are digested gastrointestinal tract, the nutrition pass the body of the metabolites through the kidney forming crude urine to filtrate and reabsorb. Some metabolite like urea and creatinine pass the glomerular filtration to eliminate out of the body, some nutrition needed by the body such as glucose, amino acid and electrolyte are absorbed by glomerular tubules into the body.
Renal excretion function is important for human metabolism, Dietary regulation can enhance the nutrition and promote the body's recovery at the same time after operation, it also reduce load kidney, maintain and protect renal function.
1、The eating time after renal operation
The people often care for the time of starting eating after operation.With the progress of medical technology, the minimally invasive techniques are used more and more various types of kidney surgery, such as Percutaneous nephroscope lithotripsy removed surgery, laparoscopic renal cyst fenestration, laparoscopic nephrectomy and so on. The minimally invasive surgery for gastrointestinal function have less influence, generally patients are anesthesia fully awake (6 to 8 hours) after the operation, they can eat a small amount (100-200 - ml) liquid diet or half flow such as rice, noodle soup, vegetable soup, dilute water lotus root starch, honey, rice porridge, custard, etc.When the intestinal peristalsis gradually recover, after intestinal ventilation, they can eat food with high protein and vitamin that are easy to digest food. Less slag such as fish, lean meat, vegetables, fruits, etc.The family can help patients to massage abdomen by cloclwise way, if conditions are permitted, family will encourage patients to sit up in bed or under the bed activities to promote gastrointestinal peristalsis.Early food after surgery (3-5 days) postoperative diet is important to note: (1) patients should forbid eating food that produce gas, such as milk, soy milk that are easy to cause discomfort like abdominal distension, they should limit the food containing crude fiber such as cabbage, celery, bean sprouts, Onions, cedar, winter bamboo shoot at the same time. so as not to cause indigestion, affect nutrient absorption.(2) the body function is in a slow recovery phase after the surgery, they often eat a small amount of food, they can feel belly full bilge, therefore each meal intake should be less appropriate before operation, they should not be too full, they should eat less for many times a day, after eating they can have appropriate activities according to the condition permission.
2、The choice and regulation of diet after operation
All the kidney disease solved by surgical operation can affect renal function, such as renal stone can cause renal seeper, tuberculosis can damage renal essence to induce empty and calcification. Renal tumor within the renal parenchyma have infiltrative even life-threatening.Operation purpose besides need to relieve pain, and maximum protection of renal function.Kidney diet after the operation, therefore, the most important principle is to strengthen nutrition at the same time, can't increase renal burden, maintain and protect renal function.To alleviate filtration load and renal metabolism, patients combining medical diseases should enhance the body resistance to disease in the daily life in addition to medication to control blood pressure, reduce blood sugar and blood uric acid, antihypertensive, hypoglycemic, blood uric acid),, they should prevent recovery of disease and maintain stable renal function.
(1)Patients with renal stones: Patients with renal stones need to insist on drinking water more and prevent crystalline substance precipitate out in urine in order to prevent stone recurrence.More than 90% are calcium stones, diet must eat less salt, patients should limit the intake of foods rich in calcium at the same time, such as yolk, dairy products (milk, butter, cheese, etc.), seafood, fish, shellfish, dried small shrimps, kelp, seaweed, etc.), nuts (peanuts, walnut) and soy foods (tofu).For patients with oxalate calculi ,they need to eat less foods rich in oxalate, including spinach, parsley, celery, green pepper, broccoli and other vegetables and strawberries, grapes and other fruit, they also need to avoid drinking strong tea water and limit vitamin C supplementation.For patients with uric acid calculi, they may need to limit the intake of seafood, meat and animal innards.
(2) Patients with renal tumors: Patients with renal tumor should have rich nutrition and reasonable collocation, do comprehensive and balanced nutrition after operation.In order to replenish the loss of blood or correction of anemia, patients can eat lean meat, eggs, animal liver, mushrooms, black fungus, enoki iron-rich foods, such as liver, especially a good source of iron.Trauma (especially the open surgery) can cause negative nitrogen balance, patients should supply adequate calories and protein, on the food choices, they should choose staple food rice flour collocation, they should guarantee heat supplement, the appropriate food can adopt animals lean meat, fish, eggs, soy products and other high protein diet.Patients need to eat more green leafy vegetables and fruits in the daily diet in order to increase vitamin intake.Patients should eat less or no oil Fried, barbecue, preserved food (including nitrite amine, sodium nitrite, benzopyrene and other carcinogenic substance).Patients should use boiled, stewed, steamed, stewed cook means rather than the methods of salad, Fried, Fried in order to the digestion and absorption of food.For recovery of the patients, they can take the medicinal materials of traditional Chinese medicine in order to enhance immunity.
(2) Patients with renal insufficiency: Patients with chronic renal insufficiency before or after operation should have low salt diet, daily salt intake should be controlled in 2-3 g, they should forbid eating pickles, salted eggs, bacon, seafood and other foods.Patients should limit protein diet in the daily diet, especially plant protein, they can adopt high quality low-protein diet.High quality protein is the high nutritional value, it depends on one of the essential amino acid content and relative proportion.High nutritional value of protein is mostly animal protein, such as fish, lean meat, chicken, eggs, and dairy products.For patients with chronic renal insufficiency, freshwater fish food is suitable to high quality protein food.Heat should be kept in the daily 2000 kilocalorie, main heat is provided by carbohydrates and moderate amounts of fat.At the same time patients need to limit high purine and high phosphorus diets, such as an animal's gut and seafood, etc. Patients can eat some fresh fruits and vegetables in order to supply a variety of vitamins and minerals, but they need to pay attention to eat less high potassium content of fruits and vegetables, such as oranges, bananas and amaranth and spinach, celery, etc.
Anyhow, for patients after the renal operation, the announcements of dietary regulation can be summarized as "one more second less three control"."One more" : more water, "the second less" : eating less salt, less meat;"Three control" : the control of blood pressure, blood sugar, blood uric acid.These points can make our kidneys to work again for our health!